How to balance pool water chemistry
Swimming Pool Supplies

 

 

Water Chemistry and Treatment Guide

 

pH
Chlorine
Alkalinity
Cyanuric Acid
How do I test?

pH

pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a liquid is. A pH greater than 7.0 is basic, and a pH lower than 7.0 is acidic. The acceptable pH level for pools and spas is between 7.2 to 7.8 for residential pools. The National Spa and Pool Institute (NSPI), the industry association in the United States, has set a standard of 7.2 to 7.6 as the ideal pH. If the pH level of your pool or spa is off, first check the Alkalinity level and make any necessary adjustment to the Alkalinity level before you adjust the pH. This will prevent sudden fluctuation of pH level.

Raising pH with Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate)

pH level
1,000 gals
5,000 gals
10,000 gals
15,000 gals
25,000 gals
 
7.0 - 7.2
3/4 oz
4 oz
8 oz
12 oz
1 1/4 lb.
 
6.7 - 7.0
1 1/4 oz
6 oz
12 oz
1 lb.
2 lb.
 
under 6.7
1 1/2 oz
8 oz
1 lb.
1 1/2 lb.
2 1/2 lb.

What happens if pH is too low?
- The water can corrode surfaces, metal equipment or fixtures.
- Swimmers and bathers can experience discomfort from burning eyes and itchy skin.
- The chlorine may dissipate more quickly.
- The water may cause pitting and etching of plaster surfaces

Lowering pH with Dry Acid (Sodium Bisulfate)

pH level
1,000 gals
5,000 gals
10,000 gals
15,000 gals
25,000 gals
7.8 - 8.0
0.1 lb.
0.3 lb.
0.6 lb.
0.9 lb.
1.5 lb.
8.0 - 8.4
0.2 lb.
0.5 lb.
1.0 lb.
1.5 lb.
2.5 lb.
Over 8.4
0.3 lb.
0.8 lb.
1.5 lb.
2.3 lb.
3.8 lb.

What happens if pH is too high?
- Calcium and metals tend to come out of solution (the opposite of dissolving) at high pH levels, creating the potential for staining and scale formation. The calcium and metals will actually create deposits and discoloration on pool walls and equipment.
- Swimmers and bathers can experience discomfort from burning eyes and itchy skin.
- High pH can contribute to cloudy water.

 

Chlorine

There are two indicators for chlorine level in pools or spas: Free chlorine and Total Chlorine. Free chlorine indicates the active chlorine available in the water to to keep water sanitized. Total Chlorine indicates the chlorine in the pool that has been used to sanitize the pool. Too much Total Chlorine can cause eye irritation. Make sure you keep proper Free Chlorine level in you pool/spa water. pH and Alkalinity must be adjusted to proper ranges before adjusting chlorine level.

Chlorination Chart - Pools (amount required to raise chlorine level by 1 ppm)

Type of Chlorine
5,000 gals
10,000 gals
15,000 gals
25,000 gals
 
Sodium Hypochlorite
5 1/2 oz
10 1/2 oz
1/2 qt.
3/4 qt.
 
Dichlor
1 oz
2 1/4 oz
3 1/4 oz
5 1/2 oz
 
Calcium Hypochlorite
1 oz
2 oz
3 oz
5 oz
 
Trichlor
3/4 oz
1 1/2 oz
2 1/4 oz
3 3/4 oz

Super Chlorination Chart - Pools (amount required to raise chlorine level by 10 ppm)

Type of Chlorine
5,000 gals
10,000 gals
15,000 gals
25,000 gals
 
Sodium Hypochlorite
1 3/4 qt.
3 1/4 qt.
1 1/4 gal.
2 gal.
 
Dichlor
11 oz
1 1/3 oz
2 lb
3 1/3 lb
 
Calcium Hypochlorite
10 oz
1 1/4 oz
2 oz
3 1/4 oz

 

Chlorination Chart - Spa (amount required to raise chlorine level by 4 ppm)

Type of Chlorine
250 gals
500 gals
 
Dichlor
1/4 oz
1/2 oz
 
Sodium Hypochlorite
1 oz
2 oz

Super Chlorination Chart - Spa (amount required to raise chlorine level by 10 ppm)

Type of Chlorine
250 gals
500 gals
 
Dichlor
2/3 oz
1 1/4 oz
 
Sodium Hypochlorite
2 1/2 oz
5 oz

 

Alkalinity

Alkalinity is a measure of total alkaline substances in your pool/spa water. Proper level of Alkalinity in the water protects against sudden fluctuation in pH level. Alkalinity level should be adjusted before pH or chlorine level adjustment is made.

Raising Alkalinity with Sodium Bicarbonate

Increase Alkalinity (ppm)
1,000 gals
5,000 gals
10,000 gals
15,000 gals
25,000 gals
 
10
2 1/2 oz
12 oz
1 1/2 lb
2 1/4 lb
3 3/4 lb
 
20
4 1/4 oz
1 1/2 lb
3 lb
4 1/2 lb
7 1/2 lb
 
50
12 oz
3 3/4 lb
7 1/2 lb
11 1/4 lb
18 3/4 lb

Lowering Alkalinity with Dry Acid (Sodium Bisulfate)

Decrease Alkalinity (ppm)
1,000 gals
5,000 gals
10,000 gals
15,000 gals
25,000 gals
 
10
2 1/2 oz
12 3/4 oz
1 1/2 lb
2 1/2 lb
4.0 lb
 
20
5.0 oz
1 1/2 lb
3 1/4 lb
4 3/4 lb
8.0 lb
 
50
12 3/4 oz
4.0 lb
8.0 lb
12 lb
20 3/4 lb

 

Cyanuric Acid (Stabilizer or Conditioner)

Cyanuric acid (stabilizer or conditioner) reduces loss of chlorine to the sun's ultraviolet rays. Chlorine in water without sufficient level of Cyanuric acid will not last long and you'll be loosing chlorine in to the air. Dichlor and Trichlor chorines already come with stabilizer added in them. If you're using liquid chlorine you'll need to add stabilizer. Too much Cyanuric acid will cause reduced chlorine efficiency and contribute to scale, stains and cloudy water.

Increase Stabilizer (ppm)
1,000 gals
5,000 gals
10,000 gals
15,000 gals
25,000 gals
 
10
1 1/4 oz
6 1/2 oz
12 3/4 oz
1 1/4 lb
2.0 lb
 
20
2 1/2 oz
12 3/4 lb
1 3/4 lb
2 1/2 lb
4.0 lb
 
30
4.0 oz
1 1/4 lb
2 1/2 lb
3 3/4 lb
6 1/4 lb

 

How do I test?

The easiest way to test for pH, Free Chlorine, Alkalinity and Cyanuric Acid levels in residential pools is to use Aquachk® Yellow test strips.

 

AquaChek Pool and Spa Test strips:
Test for:
- Free Chlorine
- Total Alkalinity
- pH
- Stabilizer

Quick 15 second pool test!

$9.95
TigerShark pool Cleaner

 

 


Pool Cleaners
bullet Hayward Pool Cleaners
bullet Pentair Pool Cleaners
bullet Polaris Pool Cleaners
bullet Zodiac Pool Cleaners

Pool Heaters
bullet Hayward Pool Heaters
bullet Jandy Pool Heaters
bullet Pentair Pool Heaters
bullet RayPak Pool Heaters

Pool Pumps
bullet Hayward Pool Pumps
bullet Jandy Pool Pumps
bullet Pentair Pool Pumps
bullet Sta-Rite Pool Pumps

Pool Filters
bullet Hayward Pool Filters
bullet Jandy Pool Filters
bullet Pentair Pool Filters
bullet Sta-Rite Pool Filters

Salt Chlorinators
bullet Jandy AquaPure
bullet Jandy PureLink
bullet Goldline AquaRite
bullet Goldline Aqua Rite Pro
bullet Pentair IntelliChlor
bullet Zodiac LM3
bullet Zodiac DuoClear

Automation/Control
bullet Goldline Aqua Logic
bullet Goldline Pro Logic
bullet Goldline Aqua Pod
bullet Jandy AquaLink RS
bullet Jandy AquaLink PDA
bullet Pentair IntelliTouch


Pool/Spa Lights
bullet Color Logic Pool Lights
bullet Color Logic Spa Lights
bullet Hayward Astro Lite
bullet Pentair Amerlite
bullet Pentair SAM/SAL Lights
bullet Pentair SpaBrite
bullet Pool Light Niches

Pool Accessories
bullet Pool/Spa Blowers
bullet Pool Automatic Skimmers
bullet Pool Chlorine Feeders
bullet Pool Thermometers
bullet Pool/Spa Brushes
bullet Intermatic Timer Switches
bullet Pool Vacuum Heads
bullet PVC Pipes & Couplings
bullet Pool Fence
bullet Backwash Valves
bullet Mineral Sanitizers

Replacement Parts
bullet Hayward Cleaner Parts
bullet Polaris Cleaner Parts
bullet Kreepy Krauly Parts
bullet Hayward Pump Parts
bullet Filter Valves

Pool Games/Toys
bullet Pool Lounges
bullet Pool volleyball Game
bullet Pool Basketball Game
bullet Pool Vacuum Heads
bullet Baby Floats
bullet Swim Boards
bullet Pool Mattress
bullet Pool Water Tube

Pool Chemicals
bullet Sanitizers
bullet Algaecides
bullet Water Test Kits
bullet Water Treatment Guide

Terms/Policies
bullet Sales Policy
bullet Shipping Policy
bullet Return Policy
bullet Link Disclaimer
bullet Testimonials
bullet Credit Card Form
bullet CA Tax Forms
bullet Contact Us